Making a mobile chroot practical
IntroChrooting to provide a desktop environment on a mobile device is not a new concept, but it is still with it's challenges. This post is about the various successes and challenges I've had so far on the road to making it practical for me.
I've had to restrict the scope of this video to keep the length reasonable. Therefore I have moved some of the topics to the next episode instead.
This episode is about making it practical for me. It is not about whether any particular tool is good or bad, but rather finding the solutions that makes it practical for me.
Image based chroot.An image based chroot is very convenient since you don't have to worry about partitioning.
- Need root.
- Debian based chroot. - http://tomashg.com/?p=330
Partition based chroot.
This was an effective work-around for devices that aren't easy to use mount -o loop.
- Need root.
- I used a Raspberry Pi image to get myself going.
App/proot - "Debian".This looks like it will be a very good solution for many people. It sorts out many details like the display and desktop environment, with options to mess around with DPI and much more.
I had a lot of trouble with performance, and on many devices, never actually getting to the desktop. I suspect these issues are caused by not having enough RAM. Evey device I tried has 1GB.
- No root needed. - May be needed for my purposes.
- Debian is a linux distribution, and this app appears to be named after that.
- Increibly slow if it ran at all. Probably RAM bound. (Tried on several devices.)
- Lots of configuration made available to you graphically.
- Ready to use from the start.
App/proot - gnuroot/wheezy (Debian)This has worked really well for me. It gave me almost everything I needed, without root, and without getting in the way.
I say almost everything, because I need /dev/fd (a symlink to /proc/self/fd), which is not present by default on the version of Android that I have. I needed to make this symlink myself in a terminal, and writing to /dev required root. If someone knows a non-root way of doing this, I'd love to hear of it.
- No root needed. - Needed for my purposes.
- Became my first choice.
- Switching between root and non-root.
App/proot - gnuroot/wheezyx (Debian)My understanding is that this is the wheezy image described above, plus automatically starting a VNC X server every time you load the terminal. In my brief testing I found myself regularly creating extra X sessions accidentally, each on their own port with their own lock files. It probably wouldn't take a lot of tuning to get this working in a more sane way.
- No root needed. - Needed for my purposes.
- A new X session via VNC is launched every time a new terminal is opened.
- I tend to switch back and forth, which caused lots of sessions to be opened.
App/proot - gnuroot/gentoo (Gentoo)I reeeeeeally want to give this another go. Running Gentoo on a phone feels like all the best kinds of dirty, geeky awesome.
I struck several problems while trying to run Gentoo. Several of them I was able to solve with symlinks in /dev. But eventually I ran out of time and the image is sitting there waiting for me to try again.
- Root needed.
- Looks really promising. I had some issues that I haven't had on physical hardware. So will need to do some more research when I have time.
KindleThis was really cool. I always intended this to be for on-call use in the sun. Very early on I replaced the SIM card so it was my own money paying for the internet connection, but a couple of things got in the way of me using this device seriously
- I never gained trust in the privacy of the device.
- The keyboard is not good for typing on
- Layout is linear. So the keys are not in a natural position.
- Keys inconsistently stick.
- Keys do not press well.
- Kindle rooting link.
- Keyboard is quirky and interesting. Good for a book. Works for console stuff, but the novelty wears off pretty quickly.
- E-ink display has the advantage of being easier to read outside.
- This is not a device you do this to for practicality.
Samsung T699This phone had so much potential, and I probably would have continued using it much longer if I hadn't accidentally bought the Motorola soon after. The only real issues I had were the keyboard feel, and the limitation with mounting images.
- Hardware specs.
- Keyboard well featured, but uncomfortable after a short time.
- OLED screen is gorgeos for console work!
- Keyboard is gorgeos to type on, but underfeatured.
Kernel/mount limitations preventing mount -o loop.
- Screen size.
- 1GB RAM.
Motorola Droid 4I really like this phone. The only reason I stopped using it was because the 1GB RAM just wasn't enough when running apps like Whatsapp along side other apps.
- Hardware specs.
- Keyboard nice.
- Actually used it.
- 1GB RAM.
JollaI. LOVE. THIS. PHONE.
The thing letting it down is the hardware (it was modest even when it was released). I'm actually looking for a way to get back into Sailfish, but on decent specs. In the mean time I'm using it as my on-call phone.
On topic! This phone is awesome for running a chroot because you have native access to everything you need without the need to hack, or work around stuff. If the hardware limitations are ok for you, I strongly recommend sailfish. There are a few Sailfish phones on the market and several community ports to various devices, so I strongly recommend those if there's anything that meets your requirements.
So why did I leave this phone? Keyboard! The on-screen keyboard didn't gel-well with me (Although a co-worker found it to be fine for him.), and using the keyboard over bluetooth was incredibly unreliable to the degree of failing every minute or so.
It also has 1GB or RAM, so didn't perform well with Whatsapp running the official client. There is a native client that ran well, but that eventually got blocked.
- Hardware specs.
- Need root, got root.
- Notes on chroot.
- 1GB RAM.
- Keyboard didn't gel with me, but was fine for one of my work mates. - Personal preference.
- Bluetooth very unreliable for keyboards.
- Haven't been able to get hold of one of the other-half keyboards available (limited run). I suspect these would work very well.
- TODO Try USB OTG or making a custom other half.
CubeI don't have much of an opinion on this. It's a tablet, so doesn't meet my requirements, but the big screen was great for experimenting on.
- 1GB RAM.
Le Max 2 x820With the exception of the Cell radio, I'd recommend this phone in every way for chrooting. The problem with the Cell radio is reliability. It regularly looses reception for 20 minutes at a time, even when in an area where other phones and it would normally have strong reception. I'm making progress in improving this, so will post back if I have something substantial.
- Hardware specs.
- 6GB RAM.
- Easy to root.
- Forking a process is slow.
- Disk access is moderate.
- Reliable Bluetooth support
- Unreliable Cell Radio.
- I'm making progress with this, so will post back if I have something substaintial.
Blackberry PrivThis gets an honourable mention because it was very tempting, mostly because of the slide out keyboard combined with mid-range specs (they were reasonable for a short time on release). I never bought this phone because it was locked down to a high degree, meaning that it was going to be difficult or impossible to do what I wanted to do on it.
KeyboardsIt turns out that I have a lot to say about this, so it's become its own section.
Bluetooth - Detached fold outI'm using an iClever (because if you have to say it, it must be true!) branded fold out keyboard. The only challenges with this this particular one is that it's not full size, which leads to typos, and it's got a non-standard layout to get the size down, which leads to many typos. It works well, and is my most frequent choice.
Bluetooth - Slide outThese are the keyboards that form part of the case of the phone. I modified an iPhone one to fit the phone I had at the time.
I found these did not offer any convenience/performance/efficiency benefit. The challenges were
- Slow keys.
- Power saving meant waiting for the keyboard to power back up and connect again via bluetooth.
Keyboard/Bluetooth or USB - LaserThis was never as practical as I so much wanted it to be, but it looks so fricken cool! I've actually spent the last hour using it again. It will not become my main choice, but from time to time, I expect I'll pull it out to have a quick play/show off.
The main challenges with it are that there is no tactile feedback, and you have to be incredibly precise to hit the right key, and even then it often gets it wrong. Double letters are often not picked up.
Keyboard/USBUSB keyboard works well, although I haven't found a small one worth noting as far as portability and still being able to type on it goes.
On-screen - Hackers keyboardWorks well for an on screen keyboard. Excellent for those moments when a physical keyboard is not viable. Full featured.
- Hackers keyboard in google play.
- Full featured.
On-screen - gboard (standard)Does what it does well, but not convenient or full featured enough for console work.
- gBoard in google play.
- Not full featured. Lacks
- Modifier keys: CTRL, ALT, Meta, Shift.
- Arror keys.
- Home, end, delete.
- Keys like ~ are at least 1, if not 2 taps away.
- Gestures don't work in the VNC clients that I've tried.
MouseI haven't had any interest in hooking up a physical mouse yet; I'm finding the touch screen plenty good enough.
VNC serverI'm literally running tightvncserver, and running the window manager in that.
Window managerRight now I'm using IceWM. It's fast, and the interface works well for a really large scrolling desktop inside VNC.
VNC clientsChoosing the right VNC client makes a massive difference to your experience using a mobile device as a desktop. This is what handles what constitutes a click, double click, right click, scroll, zooming in on that thing that's hard to read, or panning over the desktop to the next task waiting for your attention. Getting this right makes everything feel natural and manageable. Getting this wrong turns a simple task into one of frustration and will ultimately limit your interest in pursuing a mobile desktop.
Even if you follow recipes for everything else, please take the time to experiment with which client is best for you as this will change everything. Here's what worked for me:
RealVNCThis gelled so, so well with me. All of the gestures felt natural. The timings were right. It ran fast.
Unfortunately, with a recent update, they have moved to being more of a centralised/remote service. So now all connections [at least begin by] going through their centralised service, which is useless if you don't have an internet connection at that moment. This is great for remote assistance, but useless for sysadmining and a lot of the interesting possibles that VNC and RDP make possible.
- RealVNC on Google play.
- Natural gestures.
- Now requires an internet connection even if the server.
bVNCThis is my current favourite VNC client. The gestures are almost as good as RealVNC, but more importantly, it works without requiring an Internet connection.
AndroidVNCAndroidVNC hasn't gelled quite as well with me yet, and it doesn't perform as well as the other two. However it is open source and the source code is quite extensible. I'll quite likely be providing some updates to this in the future.
- AndroidVNC on google play.
- Gestures less smooth.
- Lower performance.
- Source on google code. (very out of date)
- Fork on github. (one of many)
Small screenA small screen doesn't have to be a problem. For example, for a while I was using a Sony Xperia Mini Pro, which has a 3" screen, which was just fine for hand held work. At that size, ergonomics quickly fall down when used.at a desktop viewing distance.
At the moment I'm using a 5.7" screen. But even with this I still zoom into the desktop, which is fine for looking at one thing at a time. I then pan around the desktop to find the different tasks I'm working on. I find this very good for positional association.
At this point, the trade off becomes
((readability vs how much you can see at once) vs what can fit in your pocket).
GlareI recommend a matte screen protector. It will help your eyes relax, and stop you needing to contort yourself on various angles to see different details on the screen.
StandIf your device doesn't stand by itself, it's worth getting a stand, and it may even be worth getting one even if your device does stand itself. It will help with putting the device in a position where you can
- see the screen easily.
- reach the touch screen easily.
Physical KeyboardA physical makes a massive difference to your experience. It is the difference between the mobile device being a viable desktop replacement, to not being a viable desktop replacement.
- Saves screen realestate.
- Easier to type quickly.
- Easier to use shortcuts.
- Android already has really good support.
1 big thing vs many small things.As time has been going on, I've been regularly testing whether I'm still better off than taking a laptop with me. So far the balance is still very much in favour of using the phone.
Things I'm considering are
- number of things I need to carry/connect.
Power bankThis is one of the big pluses for using a phone in place of a laptop. A standard USB power bank can charge it; For every day usage, there's no need to buy multiple power adapters, or carry one with you; A power bank of equivalent size will keep you going for many trips, and is likely to be lighter, especially once you take the cables into account.
I've had a good run in choosing them so far. I suggest doing a google for "Power bank comparison" if you're looking for inspiration.
Application lifetimeSometimes your OS will clean up stuff it thinks is not actively being used to give you a better experience. I don't have precise information to hand on how these choices are made, but I'm pretty certain it will come down to scarcity of resources; particularly RAM, which is one of the reasons I was keen to have a lot of it on the device I ended up using for this.
One of the consequences of the OS doing this is that sometimes your desktop may not be there any more when you come back to it. A reboot is another cause of this. This has not happened to me many times. In fact, I'm sufficiently confident in my setup that I have once or twice left work unsaved for a few days. I don't recommend that, because no matter how well you have things running, leaving work unsaved is asking for trouble.
A well written application will gracefully handle a gentle kill signal, and you should not loose any work. In reality this won't be high on the priorities for all applications so YMMV.
Trusting 3rd party applicationsIn the days where the NSA has it's fingers in so many pies, Russian hackers potentially infliuenced the 2016 US presidential election, spyware and randomware are a thing, you need to gain a level of confidence appropriate to the work you intend to be doing. I've done enough research and my own checking to be comfortable with my decisions, but I certainly haven't read every line of code.
Extra factor of authenticationIf you use Google Authenticator or a similar token app to be an extra factor of authentication (Ie the thing you have), and you're logging in to something using that token on the device that gives you that token, you may as well not have the token at all, because someone just needs to get your device at the moment that your password manager is unlocked, and they have every piece of authentication they need to be you.
This also goes for people running a token generator in their browser or command line as well.
So. Local vs Remote desktop?
LocalI often have trouble articulating why I find this so cool. There's the convenience of having almost as much as a full desktop always with me. The nostalgia that I now have more power in my pocket than I had available in several rooms of top-notch computers as a kid.
The argument ender is that I have a patchey internet connection for about 40% of my commute, and none for the rest of it. Being able to seamlessly keep working regardless of what the connection is doing is marvelous!
- Not dependant on connection.
- Available at any moment.
- The whole apt, yum, portage etc repo of applications available on your phone, all the time.
- Once it's paid for, you have it.
- Fricken cool!
RemoteThe big advantage of a remote server is that it can have persistent connections to things regardless of the state of your mobile connection. Meaning you can be have apt-get downloading and installing stuff while you go through a tunnel.
Other than that, assuming you want to pay for it, you can scale a remote server well beyond what is possible in a phone right now.
- Lost device != data/privacy loss.
- Can be started on the fly if an internet connection is available.
- On-going cost of the remote machine.
- This can be reduced by powering off the machine when you're not using it. But this makes the persisten session idea more complicated.
- Fast backend internet connection. Your device just needs enough to display the desktop.
- External sessions can be maintained regardless of the state of connection on your device.
Local vs remote verdictFor now, I'm thinking that I will have my work stuff (on-call) on a remote server. Since some of my on-call work involves connecting to things and having reliable connections is really useful. And I will generally stay in one place if I get called.
But for personal stuff, local makes more sense because I can seamlessly keep working regardless of whether I'm in a tunnel.
ScreenI'm going into more detail about this in a coming episode. But here are some considerations
- Angle of the surface to the eye.
- Reachable for touch gestures.
- Matte/Anti reflective screen protector.
Physical keyboard.I suggest doing your own research to see what the current recommendations/best practices are since they may have changed since I last looked. Things to search for are
- OOS (Occupation Overuse Syndrome).
- RSI (Repetitave Strain Injury).
Some things to consider are
- Ease of reaching/pressing keys.
- Ease of reaching the intended key.
MoreI had to restrict the contents of this post to keep it to a reasonable length. So I will cover the details I missed in subsequent posts. At the time of writing this, there are currently 3 followups to come. By the time they come out, there may be more. I've put a lot of time into this. If it's useful to you, or someone else; send them a link to this page.
SummaryIt has been liberating to be able to continue my hobbies on my commute, but not have to carry several KGs. It's taken some time to get it right, and it will continue to evolve. But it was totally worth it.
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|Carphone - The basic ideaImagine your phone is ringing and you can't find it. Probably the last thing you want is for it to be quietly driving away from you. Well that's ...|
|fh, s1, fh1, car, phone, cellphone|
|Fixing a defective head torch - Here I make a defective torch useful using a simple modification to stop the straps from falling off.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DdcgrwIoCt4In the original design it's very easy for the strap to slide to ...|
|head, torch, fh, repair, flaw|
|Running a laptop off AA batteries - A big thankyou to david at lifehacker for featuring this episode!The basic ideaSo you've done all the little optimisations to make your laptop last an extra half hour. Wireless is ...|
|laptop, AAs, alternate, power, volts, amps, battery, pack, s1, fh, series, parallel, fh10|
|Pin hole camera - Every morning I look up at the ceiling and see a fuzzy representation of the world below. Light hits the objects and bounces off in various directions. Some of it ...|
|Home made parachute! - Further "experimentation" :D - In this episode we are really starting to get somewhere! This was a lot of fun and I hope to get out there again before I leave NZ. We have ...|
|tarp, parachute, tarpaulin, fh, funnyhacks, s2, wildcard|
|Tablet: More info - Today I show you more details with making the tablet.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a-LBQUXBOo4Battery dockGluing without making too much messPlanning the layoutStock softwareAuto loginTouch screen calibration|
|tablet, build, fh, s3|
|Tablet: Lots of photos and info - This is one of my more impressive looking builds. Not the most complex by any means, but it certainly looks cool. Where ever I take it, I get lots of ...|
|tablet, build, fh, s3|
|Where is FunnyHacks going? - Over the last while it has been becoming increasingly apparent that I'm simply trying to do too much. So let's address that.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJfmZr7e98sThis post coversWhere is FunnyHacks going?Where has it been?Life ...|
|Running a cellphone on AAs - This remains one of my favourite hacks. It didn't make it into the show simply because I blogged about it before I started the show.It's really simple: find out what ...|
|Jump starting: Which lead first? - Today I show you why it matters which lead is connected first when jump-starting a car, and why it's not obvious if you have an electronics background.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iaLmIc-3zZYThe answer is that ...|
|batCar, carBattery, car, battery, explosion, fh, jump, start, jumpStart, shortCircuit|